• M Aerospace RTC

3D printing in dentistry


Dental 3D printing facilitates the creation of surgical guides, crowns, aligners,

and dental prostheses adapting each solution to the patient with great precision.

Additive manufacturing has already affected a significant number of sectors and industries,

offering significant advantages in terms of productivity, costs,

customization, and manufacturing deadlines. For all the above it has already started

time to grow 3D printing in dentistry since it facilitates the adaptation of

solutions for each patient. The consulting firm QY Research revealed that the

3D printing in the dental sector will reach $930 million by the end of 2025, which

represents an annual growth rate of 17%, a growth that could

be explained by the constant development of 3D technologies and different materials. Of

In fact, printing in dentistry encompasses various processes, such as

stereolithography or direct sintering of metal, and therefore a variety of

Materials: resins, plastics, metals, etc. Offering a wide range of

Applications.


The dental sector can be divided into two families of actors: dental practices and

dental prosthesis laboratories. Traditionally, they work together in the production

of personalized medical devices (aligners, crowns, bridges, etc.). After

done, the dentist makes an impression of his patient's teeth and then sends it

to the laboratory, which will then fabricate the device, usually from plaster. A process

that takes a few days, not counting the trips back and forth between the dentist and the

laboratory. As for the patient, he is obliged to have another appointment, without guaranteeing that

the device of it has been adapted from the first test. Therefore, processes

traditional are long, expensive, and can lack precision. However,

The arrival of 3D technologies is putting an end to this work methodology and has

accelerated processes. When talking about additive manufacturing in the sector

of dentistry, it is important to understand that there are several technologies involved, whether it is

fused deposition, photopolymerization, or selective sintering, the choice

will depend mainly on the applications that we want to do it Olivier

Bellator, CEO, and founder of Biosummer3D said that each process has its advantages.

and disadvantages. FDM technology, for example, produces parts “at the cost of

a few tens of cents and without further processing after the

Print. On the other hand, the speed, accuracy, and aspects of

biocompatibility are not in this option. In general, this technology will create

dental orthodontic models that will be used to develop aligners, either for

alignment, whitening, or compression. It is a strong and light material that will improve

patient comfort. The framework of the prosthesis is produced without metal and will be

completely neutral in terms of taste.


Another additive manufacturing process used in the dental sector, and probably the

main: is light curing. Whether stereolithography or DLP, this process offers

much higher resolution, with significant levels of detail and especially

biocompatible materials, in this case, liquid resins. Anton Lopez, manager of

France sales at EnvisionTEC explained: "Combined with approved materials

by CE/FDA, light-curing, and particularly DLP, offers more

accurate, allowing for more agile devices. The finish is much less

complex, which reduces manufacturing time. And it is very easy to change the material and

print different applications. This is very beneficial for the dental industry as

professionals can treat their patients faster.”


Finally, metal additive manufacturing is also a process that you will find

in dentistry, mainly to produce implants, prostheses, or crowns of

nickel-chrome. Olivier says that "the technology requires sustained production to

repay investments of up to several hundred thousand euros with skills more

industrial than dentistry. Metal machines represent a cost

much larger than other technologies and will sometimes require more work from

post-processing, which could reduce productivity. In exchange for a technician

dentist, he explained that a crown made by machining requires 15 minutes of work,

while metal 3D printing requires 5 hours of printing.

However, in terms of cost per unit, additive manufacturing is much more

interesting (0.75 cents instead of 7 euros).

As you can see so far, 3D printing in dentistry is more precise and

reduces manufacturing time. In fact, you go from a day job to a few

hours, allowing in some cases to give the solution to the patient in a single consultation.

But what are the next steps to take when creating printed dental devices in

3D? Olivier Bellaton explains: “The physical prosthesis will be replaced by an impression

Digital 3D is made by the dentist with an intraoral scanner (a camera that will reconstruct

in 3D and in real time the surfaces of the teeth and gums). This 3D file is

sent to the dental laboratory through a secure web platform. The laboratory

will re-read the digital print and model in your design software (CAD) the

morphology of the crown taking into account the limits of the gingiva, the interference with

other digitized teeth, or even the shape of the patient's smile with a

face scanner. In case of any doubt, a quick screen swap

shared with the dentist to validate the shape of the crown will suffice. The file

3D of the crown can be sent to a machining machine or a 3D printer for

its manufacture. All that remains is to save and return the model to the dentist. East

last step can even disappear if it is the dentist who performs a simple job

with the 3D printer in his cabinet. All digital flow configurations are

possible. The process can take only a few hours, which in some cases

allows the patient to make only one visit.” At the end of the day, logistics flow and reduce

production deadlines, a personalized device that adapts much more to the

patient morphology.


Dentists and dental technicians will have to equip themselves with either 3D scanners

or 3D printers, but also to master CAD software, an obstacle to

many professionals today. Nicolas Klaus, responsible for the Development of

products and dental products at Formlabs makes it clear that "the main pillars of

these new working methods are 3D scanners, CAD software, and printing

3D. In general, there is a resistance point at the software level where the

training is not obvious. «

Although 3D technologies have significant benefits for the industry, the fact

is that their adoption may scare some professionals because it requires a

new organization and work logic, software training, scanner and

printer, and some confidence. Today, many laboratories are equipped with

3D scanners and machining machines, including 3D printers. These

players recorded a 70% increase in sales, proof that they represent

real earnings for dental professionals. EnvisionTEC's Anton adds: "The

Most professionals are very receptive and open to new

digital technologies. It involves asking doctors and dental professionals to

understand and trust the new digital technology and its benefits for themselves, their

businesses, and their patients. And, of course, education and training play a

big role. That is why many manufacturing companies are investing

in this area to better understand the technology and its clinical applications.

Therefore, the future is bright for the 3D printing sector in dentistry.

with many enthusiasts who see technology as a good way to improve the

efficiency and safety of their interventions. In fact, the 2018 report of

SmarTech Publishing showed annual growth in 3D printing in the

35% dentistry, reaching $9.5 billion in 2027; The report

takes into account hardware, materials and 3D printed parts.


3D printing has a high degree of applicability in the medical sector. in this post

We are going to talk about all the applications that this technology can have in

dentistry, such as ceramic 3D printing of dental pieces and prostheses.

By scanning teeth, in 3D we can produce parts and molds in a

faster and cheaper way than with traditional ceramic molds. The

technological advances in this sector are going very fast, and they already exist in the market

for different 3D printers for dental prostheses. The field of implantology is the one that

is benefiting from 3D printing.

In the same small space, we can have a team that designs and manufactures the

dental prosthetics we need. This is a great advance that speeds up

notably the delivery times and the logistics required so far.

In dental 3D printing, we need to have a 3D scanner, a

CAD design and a prosthetic 3D printer.

With a 3D scanner, precise modeling of the dental piece is achieved and it can be

printed directly to a printer. The precision is very high and in addition

Significantly shorten the implantation periods.

The pieces they implant have millimeter precision. The resulting pieces of

this technology are more adjusted to the morphology of the patient and are more comfortable.

The precision achieved with 3D printers is very important because

we avoid negative side effects such as the appearance of cavities under the

prosthesis, when it is not precise, and digestive problems associated with it.

It is also possible to speed up the production of prostheses, simplifying and reducing

the logistics chain of this sector.


3D printed prostheses have a better quality than those made with conventional methods.

traditional such as plaster molding.

Another great advantage is the enormous cost reduction that expansion can entail.

of 3D printing in the dental sector.

We have to consider that dental treatments are not covered by

public Social Security systems, which makes it difficult for women to access them.

most popular classes.

In the third world, it can also be a great solution to making a

more accessible dentistry.

As we can see, 3D printing has only just begun, and it still has a

wide field of development. In the future, we will find treatments that can be

performed in a single visit to the dentist, who will have the ability to produce the prosthesis

that we need, avoiding more visits.

Materials for dental 3D printing.

• Modeling resins. ...

• Resin for surgical guides. ...

• Translucent resin. ...

• Casting resin. ...

• Resins for digital dental prostheses. ...

• Temporary restorations. ...

• Resins for permanent crowns.


Digital dentistry is based on three main parts:

• Digitization: in this case, it can be an intraoral scanner, an external scanner, or dental tomography. With the intraoral scanner, it is possible to obtain directly

the digital replica of the dental pieces, while with the external scanner

a plaster replica is necessary to be able to scan the teeth. The data

obtained by means of a tomograph will serve only for the planning of

implant positioning.

• Data processing: through this system the reconstruction of

digital models of the different pieces. From the digital model

The necessary adjustments will be made and the new prosthesis or bridge will be designed.

Dental pieces.

• 3D printing: from these systems, it is possible to advance on manufacturing

of the final geometry. Currently, with 3D printers, you can get

both plastic pieces that serve as study models or molds, such as

wax to later use in lost wax processes. Through this, it

can build removable prostheses such as those made in alloy

cobalt-chromium metal.

3D printing uses a standard data file, popularly known as

STL file, to translate the data from the CAD software to the computer

3D prototyping. The STL file contains the structure information by

Triangular geometric shapes or mesh of triangles. Furthermore, this type of

technology achieves a popularization, in such a way that it allows opting for the same

design and manufacturing capability that was previously exclusive to a few

designers and large production companies.

Throughout the history of mankind, objects have been constructed by eliminating

leftover parts of the material or using molds, however, the printers

3D create objects from 3D design and planning, adding material by

layers. 3D design software is essential in the 3D printing process, if

the printer does not receive the corresponding file and cannot print anything, only

when there is a correct 3D design, the material will be deposited in layers

correctly.



In general, the 3D printing process is as follows: the printer,

Following the instructions from the design file, deposit and solidify the

material. Once the first layer has solidified, continue with a second layer and,

repeating the same process, in such a way that layer by layer the

previously designed three-dimensional object. The evolution of this technology

3D printing will allow printing objects of different materials (non-existent today in

the day), with varied colors and even combined multi-materials.

Dental prostheses are artificial devices that serve to replace dental pieces.

original dental teeth lost totally or partially, in order to recover the

mouth anatomy.

In other words, it can be said that the purpose of the dental prosthesis is to recover the

oral health of the patient and improve the quality of life, since it allows chewing and

eat normally and have good pronunciation. Another compelling reason is reasons

aesthetic, since, thanks to the inclusion of dental prostheses, it improves

considerably the physical appearance of the patient.

Dental prostheses are made individually for each patient. uses

materials such as porcelain or acrylic. The base of the dental prosthesis imitates tissue

of the gum, thanks to a careful pigmentation called

polymethyl methacrylate, which comes from the accumulation of bacteria.

The prosthetic professional is the person in charge of manufacturing the prostheses, following

always the indications of a professional dentist. Two of the rules that always

must comply with the creator of the prostheses are the prohibition to work directly

on the patient and perform care work.

Dental prosthetics can replace a single tooth or the entire set of teeth.

The loss of a dental piece causes the adjacent teeth to tend to

commute. This has serious consequences such as chewing problems,

impediment of a correct feeding, or difficulty to maintain correct

oral hygiene, with the consequent increased risk of contracting diseases.

All these reasons explain the importance of replacing teeth that are

lost by dental prostheses, with the aim of maintaining proper health

oral and general

When are dentures required?

Tooth loss can occur in different ways. Some of the most

common are due to trauma caused by blows or accidents, eating

hard foods, diseases that deteriorate the teeth, poor hygiene

oral, etc.

When it is not possible to repair or clean the tooth with fillings, it is necessary

use dentures.

Types of dental prostheses

At present, there are different types of dental prostheses, adapted to the

needs of each patient

Fixed prosthetics

Fixed prostheses are those that cannot be removed by the patients themselves, that is,

That is, they should go to the dentist in case they want to extract them. In turn, inside

fixed dental prostheses, there are the following types:


1. tooth-supported crowns or fixed bridges. They are used to restore one or more

Dental pieces. They are placed on the carved teeth, this being the only one

support for. To manufacture them, the color and size characteristics of the

rest of the teeth They can be made of zirconium or metal-ceramic.

2. Fixed prosthetics on implants. They are made up of a prosthetic structure

fixed through screws or cemented on the implants located within

the maxillary bones. It is used as dental treatment

restorative used to recover the functionality and aesthetics of the entire

mouth.

3. Hybrid prostheses on implants. This type of prosthesis combines the fixation of

implants with the mucosal surface of the gum to achieve adjustment of the

prosthesis. It is recommended in patients with bone resorption

considerable. Acrylic materials are used for their manufacture and for

cleaning them is necessary to go to the dental office.

Fixed prosthetics

Fixed prostheses are those that cannot be removed by the patients themselves, that is,

That is, they should go to the dentist in case they want to extract them. In turn, inside

of fixed dental prostheses, there are the following types:

4. tooth-supported crowns or fixed bridges. They are used to restore one or more

Dental pieces. They are placed on the carved teeth, this being the only one

support for. To manufacture them, the color and size characteristics of the

rest of the teeth They can be made of zirconium or metal-ceramic.

5. Fixed prosthetics on implants. They are made up of a prosthetic structure

fixed through screws or cemented on the implants located within

the maxillary bones. It is used as dental treatment

restorative used to recover the functionality and aesthetics of the entire

mouth.

6. Hybrid prostheses on implants. This type of prosthesis combines the fixation of

implants with the mucosal surface of the gum to achieve adjustment of the

prosthesis. It is recommended in patients with bone resorption

considerable. Acrylic materials are used for their manufacture and for

cleaning them is necessary to go to the dental office.

Project 1200 – 3D Systems

This is the perfect equipment for professionals who need print detail in

small parts and castable models. Provides precision and smoothness of

the matchless surface. With a print volume of 43 x 27 x 150 mm, 30 microns

layer, and a resolution of 585 dpi.

It is really useful for small clinics or laboratories that want to start in

additive manufacturing without assuming large costs and without sacrificing precision or

quality of finishes.


Lux – BCN3D

This 3D printer uses DLP (Digital Light Processing) printing system.

Reproduce layered 3D files using photosensitive resin, cured by a

projector. Get pieces of high resolution (1080p) and different hardnesses

(shore), with a large manufacturing volume (x 250 / y 140 / z 300 mm).

The best quality of this equipment is that it can work with many materials,

as its operation is not determined by the consumables of a specific brand.

However, there are certain recommended ranges, for basic or industrial use

with rigid resins, or through castable materials.

For reasons not stated by the manufacturer, this model has been withdrawn from the

market, from our own experience we have some notions of the reasons that have

motivated said withdrawal, but we will summarize it in that, in the first instance, BCN3D

seemed to be a very promising company, and that changed during its maturation




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